No resource would be complete without a comprehensive glossary of terms. We’ve compiled a list of terms and their definitions to better help you navigate.
Synchronous Communications Sync is a form of communication that requires both applications to run concurrently during the communications process. A process issues a call and idles, performing no other function, until it receives a response.
Symmetric algorithm An encryption algorithm that uses the same key for encryption and decryption.
Supply Chain The supply chain links supplier and user organizations and includes all activities involved in the production and delivery of goods and services, including planning and forecasting, procurement, production/operations, distribution, transportation, order management, and customer service.
Subscription A data recipient requests that it receive a 'notification' when a specific event occurs that meets the recipient's criteria (selective on sources, categories, etc.). This is subject to the recipient's access to information as controlled by the data source through its home data pool. There are two kinds of subscriptions:
- Generic subscriptions - to generic types of data (item or party that is part of a specific category).
- Detailed subscriptions - to a specific party (identified by its GLN) or specific item (identified by its GTIN)
With the set-up of a detailed subscription, a data recipient sets a profile to receive ongoing updates of the specific item, party or partner profile. The detailed subscription is also used to indicate an 'Authorisation'.
STP Straight Through Processing occurs when a transaction, once entered into a system, passes through its entire life cycle without any manual intervention. STP is an example of a Zero Latency Process, but one specific to the finance industry which has many proprietary networks and messaging formats.
Stored Procedure A program that creates a named collection of SQL or other procedural statements and logic that is compiled, verified and stored in a server database.
SSL Secure Sockets Layer. A program layer created by Netscape for managing the security of message transmissions in a network. Netscape's idea is that the programming for keeping your messages confidential ought to be contained in a program layer between an application (such as your Web browser or HTTP) and the Internet's TCP/IP layers. The SSL upper layer provides asymmetric cryptography for server authentication (verifying the server's identity to the client) and optional client authentication (verifying the client's identity to the server), and enables them to negotiate a symmetric encryption algorithm and secret session key (to use for data confidentiality) before the application protocol transmits or receives data. A keyed hash provides data integrity service for encapsulated data.
Sockets Sockets describe the software methods invoked to correctly form an IP packet on the processor to physical communications interface. Aka President Clinton's cat.
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol. An emerging standard that enables distributed software components to exchange data as XML pages.
SCM Supply Chain Management is that function or set of skills and disciplines which involve the logistics and processes of creating a product from its original constituent elements that may be manufactured by sub-contractors or other divisions to its ultimate delivery to the buyer.
SNA System Network Architecture.
S/MIME Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. An Internet protocol [R2633, June 1999] to provide encryption and digital signatures for Internet mail messages.
SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm is a hash algorithm. HMAC is a keyed hash variant used to authenticate data. See Hash function.
Server Generically, a server is any computer providing services. In client-server systems, the server provides specific capabilities to client software running on other computers. Usually, the server typically interacts with many clients at a time, while the client may interact with only one server.
Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) The EAN-UCC number comprising 18 digits for identifying uniquely a logistic unit (licence plate concept). Standard: A specification for hardware, software or data that is either widely used and accepted (de facto) or is sanctioned by a standards organization (de jure). A "protocol" is an example of a "standard."
Secret key The value used in a symmetric encryption algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data. Only the trading partners authorized to access the encrypted data must know secret keys.
Search/Browse This provides data visibility according to userÕs permissions and certain criteria such as categories, GTIN, GLN, target market, etc. The home data pool provides this visibility in the framework of the GCI interoperable network.
Scalability Scalability refers to the ability of a system to support large implementations or to be easily upgradeable as the scale dimension grows. For trading networks, the dimension refers to large number of partners - 1000s. Process routers have high scalability because they can support thousands of partners and protocols, while an integration appliance can only support a few at once.